In the domain of literary criticism, many critics practice close reading, annotating by hand while performing a detailed analysis of a single text. Often this process employs the use of external resources to aid analysis. In this article, we present a study and subsequent tool design focused on leveraging a critic’s annotations as implicit interactions for initiating context-specific computational support that automatically searches external resources. We observed 14 poetry critics performing a close reading, revealing a set of cognitive practices supported through free-form annotation that have not previously been discussed in this context. We used guidelines derived from our study to design a tool, Metatation, which uses a pen-and-paper system with a peripheral display to utilize reader annotations as underspecified interactions to augment close reading. By turning paper-based annotations into implicit queries, Metatation provides relevant supplemental information in a just-in-time manner and acts as a bridge between close and distant reading.
Metatation: Annotation as Implicit Interaction to Bridge Close and Distant Reading
Hrim Mehta, Adam James Bradley, Christopher Collins, Mark Hancock
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI)
Volume 24 Issue 5, November 2017
Article No. 35
Annotations made during close reading of poetry. Panel (a) shows cognitive purpose codes assigned to annotation units for one of the participants’ annotations during the study, as visualized by our coding tool. Orange and blue bounding boxes represent annotation units categorized as co and eml respectively. Panel (b) is an example of an annotation unit, identifying the repetition of sounds, categorized as co. Panel (c) shows an example of an annotation unit, noting observations about repetitions of sound across the poem, coded as eml.